Essential facts about Florence Nightingale, as well as a very extensive reading list! 

Born May 12, 1820 in Florence, Italy. Father: wealthy English aristocrat. Youngest of 2 sisters. Both parents live into her adulthood. Privately tutored. Raised officially Anglican, unofficially Unitarian. Childhood distinctions: resourceful, restless. Never married. Grew up on two great English estates: Lea Hurst (Derbyshire) and Embley Park (Hampshire). 1829 began diary in French. 1837 mystical calling, began two-year tour of Europe. 1839 'coming out' for Queen Victoria. 1842 first heard of Kaiserwerth deaconesses. 1843 began constant torment of daydreaming. 1844 realized her calling was to the sick. 1845 convinced her role was to be a nurse. 1847 Rome visit reinforced her longings. 1850 Egypt, Greece trip included Kaiserwerth stop. 1852 wrote 'Cassandra' lament. 1853 left home, supervised infirmary for women. 1854 pioneered modern nursing in Crimean War. 1856 returned to England heroine, confidante to Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. 1857 influenced reform of army medical system (implemented in 1859). 1860 published classic Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not, opened Nightingale Training School for Nurses in London, privately circulated rambling Suggestions for Thought. 1861 moved to South Street residence in London, spent rest of life administering nursing school and unofficially advising many medical enterprises. Died August 13, 1910. Buried St. Margaret churchyard at Wellow, near Embley Park.

          Go to anecdotes on Florence Nightingale's...                               
                                                                Humanity
                                                                Wart (or flaw)
                                                                Failure
                                                                Defining Moment

         Go to this page to learn five values that made her a hero of history.

         Go to this page to find links to other websites about this hero.

         Go to this page to give your opinion of this hero.

In association with Amazon.com.

Order key books by clicking:

HC                             PB
(for hardcover)         (for paperback)

BY FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE:
Calabria, Michael D., ed., Florence Nightingale in Egypt and Greece: Her            HC      PB
     Diary and "Visions"
. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.
Calabria, Michael D. and Janet A. Macrae, ed.,
Suggestions for Thought by        HC      PB
     Florence Nightingale
. Philadelphia: Un. of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.
Goldie, Sue M., ed.,
'I Have Done My duty': Florence Nightingale in the Crimean                        HC
     War 1854-56
. UK: Manchester University Press, 1987.
Goldie, Sue M., ed.,
Florence Nightingale: Letters from the Crimean, 1854-56.                              PB
     New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Keele, Mary, ed.,
Florence Nightingale in Rome: Letters written by Florence                PB
   
 Nightingale in Rome in the winter of 1847-48. Phila.: Am. Phil. Soc., 1980.
Nightingale, Florence,
At Harley Street: Her Reports to the Governors of Her                                PB
     Nursing Home 1853-1854
.
Nightingale, Florence,
Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not.            HC      PB
     London: Harrison, 1860. Numerous reprints.
Poovey, Mary, ed.,
Cassandra and other selections from Suggestions for            HC      PB
     Thought
.  New York: New York University Press, 1992.
Sattin, Anthony, ed.,
Letters from Egypt: Journey on the Nile 1849-1850.                      HC
     New York: Grove Press, 1992.
Vicinus, Martha and Bea Nergaard, ed.,
Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale:                    HC
     Selected Letters
.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
The following landmark writings (titles mercifully shortened here) are difficult to find:
     The Institute of Kaiserwerth on the Rhine for the practical training of deaconesses…, 1850.
     Mortality of the British Army…compared with the Mortality of the Civil Population
          in England
, 1858.
     Notes on Hospitals…1858.
     Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of
          the British Army
…, 1858.
     Introduction of Female Nursing into Military Hospitals
, 1858.
     Contribution to the Sanitary History of the British Army in the Late War with Russia, 1859.
     Notes on Nursing for the Labouring Classes, 1861.
     Organization of Nursing in a large town…Liverpool…, 1865.
     Introductory Notes on Lying-in Institutions…Midwives and Midwivery Nurses, 1871.
     Life or Death in India…, 1873.
     Health Teaching in Towns and Villages…, 1894.

NOTE: Dr. Lynn McDonald of the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) is Project Director of a sweeping attempt to publish all known writings as the
Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.  Wilfrid Laurier University Press should begin publishing the many volumes in about year 2000. Even Florence's many notations in her Bibles (in seven languages!) will be included.

ABOUT FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE'S LIFE AND TIMES:
Baly, Monica E., Florence Nightingale and the Nursing Legacy.                                        PB
     BainBridge Books, 1998.
Barbary, James,
The Crimean War, New York: Hawthorn Books, 1970.                            PB
Barker, A. J.,
The War Against Russia: 1854-1856, New York: Holt,                                  PB
     Rinehart and Winston, 1970.
Bishop, W. J. and Sue Goldie, ed.,
A Bio-Bibliography of Florence Nightingale.
     London: Dawson, 1962.
Bullough, Vern and others, ed.,
Florence Nightingale and Her Era: A Collection of                      HC
     New Scholarship
. Garland Publishing, 1990.
Chappell, J. A. V. and Arthur Pollard, ed.,
The Letters of Mrs. Gaskell                            PB
     (Elizabeth Gaskell), New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Cook, Sir Edward,
The Life of Florence Nightingale. London: Macmillan,
     2 Vol., 1913.
Cooper, Robert M.,
The Literary Guide and Companion to Middle England.        HC      PB
     Athens: Ohio University Press, 1993.
Cooper, Robert M.,
The Literary Guide and Companion to Northen England.      HC      PB
     Athens: Ohio University Press, 1994. 
Cooper, Robert M.,
The Literary Guide and Companion to Southern England.    HC      PB
     Athens: Ohio University Press, 1986.
Donahue, M. Patricia,
Nursing: The Finest Art; An Illustrated History.                          HC
     Mosby-Year Book, 1996.
Gordon, Lyndall,
Charlotte Bronte: A Passionate Life, New York: W. W. Norton          PB
     & Company, 1995.
Hebert, Raymond G.,
Forence Nightingale: Saint, Reformer or Rebel?                            PB
     Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing, 1981.
Huxley, Elspeth,
Florence Nightingale. New York: Putnam, 1975.                                      PB
Huxley, Leonard, ed.,
Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Letters To Her Sister,
     1846-1859
, New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1930.
Longford, Elizabeth
, Queen Victoria: Born To Succeed, New York: Harper
     & Row, 1964.
Nokes, David,
Jane Austen: a Life, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.  HC      PB
O'Malley, I. B.,
Florence Nightingale, 1820-1856. London: Thornton
     Butterworth, 1931.
Partridge, Michael S. and Karen E.,
Lord Palmerston, 1784-1865. Greenwood                                HC
     Publishing, 1994.
Rappe, Emmy Carolina,
"God Bless You, Miss Nightingale": Letters from                        PB
     Emmy Carolina Rappe to Florence Nightingale 1867-1870
.
Reid, T. Wemyss,
The Life, Letters, and Friendships of Richard Monckton                     PB
     Milnes, first Lord Houghton
.
Sanders, Valerie, editor,
Harriet Martineau: Selected Letters.                                          PB
Sullivan, Mary, editor,
The Friendship of Florence Nightingale and Mary                      HC
     Clare Moore
. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
Tooley, Sarah,
The Life of Florence Nightingale. Cassell and Co., 1910.
Ulrich, Beth T.,
Leadership and Management According to Florence Nightingale.                      PB
     Appleton & Lange, 1992.
Wellman, Sam,
Florence Nightingale. Barbour Publishing, 1999.                           HC      PB
Woodham-Smith, Cecil,
Florence Nightingale, 1820-1910. London:                                  PB
Constable & Co., 1950.

Sam Wellman's

Explorers, writers, missionaries...Heroes of History!

Biography Site