Essential facts about Columbus, as well as a very extensive reading list! 

Born September or October 1451 in Genoa, Italy. Oldest of 1 sister, 4 brothers. Father: weaver. Both parents lived into his adulthood. Raised Catholic. Self educated. Childhood distinctions: adventurous, proud. 1465 ca. first sea voyage. 1471 ca. regularly at sea. 1476 swam ashore in Portugal after sea battle, became resident of Lisbon. 1477 sailed to Iceland. 1478 ca. made captain, sailed down African coast. 1479 married Felipa of Portuguese nobility. 1480 son Diego born. 1484 ca. Felipa died. 1485 moved to Spain after King John II (Portugal) rejected his plan to sail west to China. 1486 plan rejected by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. 1486-1491 plan rejected by royalty in England and France, and again in Portugal and Spain. 1492 plan approved by Ferdinand and Isabella, sailed to Americas with three ships. 1493 returned to Spain and acclaim. 1493-6 Second voyage. 1498-1500 Third voyage ended with Columbus returning to Spain in chains. 1502-1504 Fourth voyage. 1504 his ally Isabella died. May 20, 1506 died at Valladolid, still petitioning for his reward from Spanish royalty. Buried at Seville, Spain.

          Go to anecdotes on Columbus'...                               
                                                                Humanity
                                                                Wart (or flaw)
                                                                Failure
                                                                Defining Moment

         Go to this page to learn five values that made him a hero of history.

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BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS OR FAMILY:
First Voyage to America : From the Log of the 'Santa Maria'. Dover Pub., 1991.                              PB
The Journal of Christopher Columbus. New York, 1960.  Trans. Cecil Jane. Dover, 1988.            PB
Journal of Christopher Columbus During His First Voyage 1492-93 and Documents                   PB
     Relating to the Voyages of John Cabot and Gasper Corte Real
.
The voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being the journals of his first and third, and                  PB
     the letters concerning his first and last voyages, to which is added the account of
      his second voyage written by Andres Bernaldez
.
Letter of Christopher Columbus to Rafael Sanchez . Johnson Pub., 1979.                                          HC
Colon, Fernando,
The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by His Son Ferdinand.            PB
     Trans., annotated by Benjamin Keen, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ., 1992.
(ed. Ruberto Rusconi),
The Book of Prophecies Edited by Christopher Columbus                          HC
     (Repertorium Columbianum, V. 3) , Un. Calif. Press, 1997.
(ed. Oliver Dunn et al)
The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America,              PB
     
1492-1493. Un. Oklahoma Press, 1991.
(ed. Antonio Pigafetta)
To America and Around the World : The Logs of Christopher                  HC
     Columbus and of Ferdinand Magellan
. Branden Pub., 1991. 
Cohen, John Michael, ed.,
The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Penguin, 1969.              PB
Garner, R. L. and D. C. Henderson, ed.,
Columbus and Related Family Papers 1451 to               PB
     1902: An inventory of the Boal Collection. Univ. Park: Penn. State Un. Press, 1974.
Morison, Samuel Eliot, ed. and trans.,
Journals and Other Documents on the Life and
     Voyages of Christopher Columbus
. New York: The Heritage Press, 1963.

ABOUT THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS:
Abbott, Wilbur C., The Expansion of Europe. New York, 1938.
Adam, Herbert B. and Henry Wood,
Columbus and His Discovery of America.                              HC
     Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1892.
Argenti, Philip,
The Occupation of Chios by the Genoese. Cambridge, 1958.
Bakeless, John Edwin,
Seen by the First Explorers. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1950.                      PB
Baker, J. N. L.,
A History of Geographical Discovery and Exploration.  London, 1937.                PB
Beazley, Charles R.,
The Dawn of Modern Geography: A History of Exploration and                  PB
     Geographical Science.  3 vols. Oxford, England, 1896-1906.
Bedini, Sylvio,
Christopher Columbus and the Age of Exploration: An Encyclopedia.                  PB
     NY: Da Capo Press, 1998.
Bourne, Edward G.,
Spain in America 1450-1580.  New York, 1904.
Bourne, Edward G.,
Prince Henry: the Navigator.                                                                                      PB
Boxer, Charles R.,
The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825. NY: Knopf, 1969.                        HC
Cipolla, Carlo M.,
Guns and Sails in the Early Phase of European Expansion, 1400-1700.          PB
     London, 1965.
Coleman, Roy V.,
The First Frontier. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1948.
Collis, John Stewart. 
Christopher Columbus.  New York:  Stein and Day, 1977.                              PB
Crone, Gerald Roe,
The Discovery of America. New York: Weybright and Talley, 1969.                PB
Crouse, Nellis M.,
In Quest of the Western Ocean. New York, 1928.
Cumming, William P., R.A. Skeleton and D.B. Quinn,
The Discovery of North America.              PB
     New York: American Heritage Press, 1972. 
De Gois, Damiao et all, ed.,
Lisbon in the Renaissance. Italica Press, 1999.                                      PB
Elliott, J. H., 
Imperial Spain, 1469-1716.  1963.                                                                                            PB
Epstein, Steven,
Genoa and the Genoese, 958-1528. Univ. No. Carolina Press, 1996.                      HC
Farina, Luciano et al,
Columbus Documents: Summary of Documents in Genoa, 1992.                HC
Fiske, John,
The Discovery of America. 2 vol. Boston, 1892.
Floyd, Troy S.,
The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, 1492-1526. Un. N. Mex. Pr., 1973.        PB
Gibson, Charles C., 
Spain in America.  New York:  Harper and Row, 1966.                                      PB
Gillespie, James E., 
A History of Geographical Discovery, 1400-1800. New York, 1933.
Hakluyt, Richard,
Four Voyages of Columbus.                                                                                              HC
Haring, Clarence H.,
The Spanish Empire in America. Oxford University Press, 1947.        HC    PB
Hewson, J. B.,
A History of the Practice of Navigation.  London, 1951.                                              PB
Highfield, Roger, ed.,
Spain in the Fifteenth Century. New York, 1972.                                              PB
Houben, H. H.,
Christopher Columbus; Tragedy of a Discoverer. NY: E.P. Dutton, 1936.
Irving, Washington,
The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. AMS Press, 1999.              HC
Landstrom, Bjorn,
Columbus; the Story of Don Cristobal Colon, Admiral of the Ocean, and
     and His Four Voyages Westward to the Indies
. New York: MacMillan, 1967.
MacKay, Angus,
Love, Religion and Politics in Fifteenth Century Spain.                                            HC
Madariaga, Salvador de,
Christopher Columbus; Being the Life of the Very                                      PB
     Magnificent Lord, Don Cristobal Colon
. New York: F. Ungar, 1967.
Martinez-Hidalgo, Jose Maria,
Columbus' Ships. Ed. H. I. Chapelle. Barre Pub., 1966.
McAlister, Lyle N.,
Spain and Portugal in the New World 1492-1700. Un. of Minn. Pr., 1984.      PB
Morison, Samuel Eliot,
Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. :          HC      PB
     Boston: Little, Brown and Company,  1942.
Morison, Samuel Eliot,
Christopher Columbus, Mariner. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955.                  PB
Morison, Samuel Eliot,
The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages .                  PB
     
A.D. 500-1600. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.
Morison, Samuel Eliot,
The European Discovery of America: The Southern Voyages A.D.           PB
     
1492-1616. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.
Norman, Charles,
Discoverers of America. New York: T.Y. Crowell Co., 1968.                                    PB
Nunn, G. E.,
The Geographical Conceptions of Columbus, 1924.                                                              HC
Oliveira, Martins, J.P.,
Golden Age of Prince Henry the Navigator. Reynolds, 1914.
Parry, J. H.,
The Age of Reconnaissance, Discovery, Exploration and Settlement, 1450-1650.    PB
Parry, J. H.,
The Spanish Seaborne Empire.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1966.                                PB
Penrose, Boies,
Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance,1420-1620. Cambridge, MA, 1952.      PB
Pike, Ruth,
Enterprise and Adventure: Genoese in Seville in Opening the New World, 1966.
Pullan, Brian. 
A History of Early Renaissance Italy.  London, 1973.                                                    PB
Rubin, Nancy,
Isabella of Castile: the First Renaissance Queen. St. Martin's Press, 1992.              PB
Smith, Roger,
Vanguard of Empire: ships of Exploration in the Age of Columbus.                            HC
     Oxford Un Press, 1993.
Sykes, Percy,
History of Exploration. 3d ed., 2 vols. 1950.
Thacher, John B.,
Christopher Columbus, his life, his work, his remains, 1967 Reprint                  PB
Wassermann, Jakob,
Columbus, Don Quixote of the Seas. Boston: Little, Brown, 1930.
Zavala, Silvio,
The Political Philosophy of the Conquest of America.  Mexico, 1953.

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